Historical and Cultural Heritage of Vologda Region
There are more than 3500 objects of cultural heritage on the territory of Vologda Oblast, 759 of them are included into official Lists of monuments of history and culture under state protection. 214 monuments have the status of federal value, 545 belong to the category of regional value. In 2000 a pearl of Vologda Oblast – St.Ferapont monastery, with its frescoes by Dionysius, was included into the World Heritage List of the UNESCO.
The variety of Vologda Oblast heritage is represented by the monuments of archeology, monastic and church complexes, wooden architecture, ancient manors and objects of historical industrial heritage.
Vologda, Veliky Ustyug, Belozersk, Vytegra, Gryazovets, Kirillov, Nikolsk, Totma, Ustyuzhna, Cherepovets and village Ferapontovo are included into the List of Historical Cities and Settlements of Russia.
15 settlements of the oblast have valuable town-planning ensembles and complexes, natural landscapes and the ancient cultural layer: the cities of Vologda, Veliky Ustyug, Belozersk, Vytegra, Gryazovets, Kadnikov, Kirillov, Nikolsk, Totma, Cherepovets, Ustyuzhna; the settlement of city type Ustye; villages Verkhovazh’ye and Ferapontovo; settlements of the Chagoda municipality with monuments of archeology. Almost half of the monuments of archeology are sites of ancient settlements of the X-XV and XVI-XVII centuries, the others – burial grounds and sites. Studying these objects, it is possible to track ways of the Russian North colonization, process of ethnic, social and cultural development of the Vologda Land.
Monuments of the cult draw special interest of researchers. Among the survived and most significant monastic ensembles are ensembles of the Vologda Kremlin (the former Bishop Courtyard), the Spasso-Prilutsky, the Trinity – Gledensky, the Kirillo-Belozersky monasteries. The Ferapontov monastery has gone down to history of the Russian and world art due to the frescoes by Dionysius which don't have analogues among the monuments of ancient Russia in safety and skill of execution.
We are by the right proud of such ancient cathedrals, as St.Sofia in Vologda, St.Procopius the Godly – in Veliky Ustyug, Kazan – in Ustyuzhna, Spasso-Preobrazhensky and Dormition – in Belozersk, Resurrection – in Cherepovets. Vologda land residents and visitors cannot but admire the beauty of the Totma ship-like temples.
Of special value are the objects of wooden architecture: churches, chapels, apartment houses and household constructions. Examples of monuments of wooden architecture are: the church of the Placing of the Robe (Rizopolozheniya) from the village Borodava of 1485 (it was brought onto the territory of the Kirillo-Belozersky monastery during the Soviet time); the Church of Elijah in the village Saminsky Pogost of the Vytegorsky district, 1692; the Dormition church of the Aleksandro-Kushtsky monastery (nowadays it is in the Spasso-Prilutsky monastery) – a monument of wooden architecture of the XVI century; the Dormition church in the village Nelazskoe, the Cherepovets district, 1694; the Church of Elijah of the XVII century in Belozersk – a rare example of wooden church architecture which has survived within the city border.
Among the Vologda Land monuments an important place belongs to ancient country estate complexes. Most valuable of them are: the Bryanchaninovs’ manor in the village Pokrovskoye of the Gryazovets municipality; the Galskoy manor in Cherepovets; the Batyushkovs – Kuprin manor in the village Danilovskoye of the Ustyuzhna district; the manor of poet Igor Severyanin in the village Vladimirovka of the Cherepovets municipality, the Kachalovs manor in the Babaevo municipality. For many centuries traditions of family and kin, culture of nobility and peasantry, social, economic and cultural processes of Russia were synthesized in ancient manors.