Belozersk is one of the ancient cities in Russia. First settlement was found here on the southern bank of the lake in the middle of the 7th century. Since 7th century two cities – an old one – on the bank of the Sheksna River and a new one – on the bank of the Beloye Lake – were developed simultaneously. Being founded not far fr om each other they cooperated very actively. If the old city was a trade and craft center, the new one was an administrative and agricultural center.
Since the end of the 11th century Beloozero (Belozersk) was a part of Rostovo-Suzdal land. Being situated far away, the city avoided the Tatar-Mongolian invasion in 1238. Foundation of the independent Belozersk princedom dated back to 1238. The Belozersk princedom kept its independence till 1380-s when after the death of the Belozersk princes on the Kulikov battlefield it passed under the dominion of the Moscow Grand Duke Dmitry Donskoy.
Since 1486 Beloozero became the center of the Belozersk district.
15-16th centuries were the period of the city prosperity. The city Beloozero, being situated in the center of trade routes, traded actively and acted as a negotiator in many trade transactions. During that period the city was developed and decorated with stone churches.
In 1612 Beloozero became the first northern city that suffered from Polish and Lithuanian invaders. Beloozero was sacked, most of its part was burned out and the population was partially killed. In 1690 a wooden church of the St. Elijah the Prophet that still remains was built on the place wh ere there was a big battle between the Belozersk people and Polish people.
By the beginning of the 17th century, because of the replacement of the trade route to Arkhangelsk, Beloozero fell into decay. The city was aside the main trade and economic life of the country. Under Ivan IV rule it became the place of exile for disgraced noblemen. Only in the second half of the 17th century Beloozero started developing.
The changes that took place in the country in the 18th century reflected on the Belozersk land. Since 1719 the city became a part of Saint-Petersburg province and then a district city of the Novgorod region. In 1777 it received its present name – Belozersk. At that time there were 22 churches in the city.
The Mariinskaya waterway, that started functioning in 1810, promoted development of the city and its last facility – Belozersk bypass canal – was opened in 1846. Timber harvesting trades were developed. Timber was transported by water to Saint-Petersburg. After the Volga-Baltic waterway was opened the ties between the city and other economic regions of Russia increased.
At the beginning of the 20th century the city building site was enriched by a number of wooden 2-storeyed buildings belonging to merchants. There were 17 stone churches, one wooden church, one stone and one wooden chapel at that time. The city territory was divided into 54 quarters. The local industry didn’t receive further development because of its location far from the railway and the fall of water trade.
In 1990 the city was included in the List of historical places. There are 52 monuments of history and culture under state protection.